## Categories of Statistics

There are two **Categories of Statistics**. These are statistics in singular and statistics in plural.

# Statistics in Singular as one of the Categories of Statistics

Statistics in singular is one of the Categories of Statistics. It is the scientific study of the principles and methods applied in collection, organization, presentation, analysis and interpretation of numerical data. Statistics as a field of study is concerned with the following activities:

- Collection, organization, presentation, and analysis of data
- Making inferences about a body of data when only a part of the data is observed, and
- Interpretation and communication of the results of the first two activities

**Statistics in Plural as one of the Categories of Statistics**

Statistics in plural is one of the Categories of Statistics. Systematically collected and aggregated numerical data. Statistical data have the following main characteristics;

- aggregates of facts e.g. total sales in a month
- multiplicity of causes e.g. total demand is a function of several factors
- numerically expressed
- enumerated or estimated according to a reasonable standards of accuracy e.g. 90% accuracy
- collected in a systematic manner
- collected for a predetermined purpose e.g. to determine economic growth rate
- comparable i.e. placed in relation to each other e.g. chronological (time wise) and geographical comparisons

## Types of Data in Categories of Statistics

a) Source of data

There are two sources of data in Categories of Statistics. Primary data is data collected directly or indirectly for the first time. It comprises of measurements observed and recorded as part of an original study and secondary data is data already collected and recorded data by other individuals or agencies for a purpose

b) Measurement of data

There are also two sources of measurement of data in Categories of Statistics. They are quantitative data that can be measured directly and expressed in numerical terms e.g. age, height and qualitative data that cannot be measured directly and expressed in numerical terms e.g. Intelligence, gender, attitudes etc

**Variable in Categories of Statistics**

A variable in Categories of Statistics is a characteristic that assumes different values for different entities e.g. heights of people. Types of variables are:

- Quantitative variable which can be measured directly and expressed in numerical terms e.g. height
- Qualitative variable that cannot be measured directly and expressed in numerical terms e.g. Intelligence, gender,
- Discrete variable that assumes only whole numbers e.g. number of people.
- Continuous variable that assumes both whole numbers and fractions e.g. height

**Limitations of Categories of Statistics**

The limitations of Categories of Statistics are;

- Statistics does not deal with isolated measurement
- Statistics deals only with quantitative characteristics
- Statistical results are true only on average
- Statistics is only a means and not an end.
- Statistics can be misused

**Statistical Inquiries in Categories of Statistics**

Statistical Inquiries in Categories of Statistics are statistical investigation and research.

Types of statistical inquiries in Categories of Statistics are:

- Primary or secondary
- Census or a sample
- Open or confidential – in terms of results
- Direct or indirect – in terms of measuring
- Regular – regular period or once a while
- Initial or repetitive
- Official, semi-official or non-official- by government, bodies supported by government or private bodies`

**Organization Data in Categories of Statistics**

Organization Data in Categories of Statistics is the classification and tabulation of data

**Classification of Data in Categories of Statistics**